DavisStirlingAttorneys.net

 
 











 

Davis - Stirling Attorneys

Homeowner Association Attorneys

Condominium Association Lawyers

 
Davis-Stirling Act HOA-CID Glossary HOA Questions & Answers
     

Disadvantages of Retaining a Sole Practitioner Attorney

 

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Michael T. Chulak & Associates, a Law Corporation has extensive experience in homeowner association law including all aspects of the Davis-Stirling Act. We provide services throughout California in the following areas:

 



The HOA attorneys at Michael T. Chulak & Associates welcome the opportunity to meet with the Board of Directors of any homeowner association for a no charge, no obligation consultation regarding any legal issue. This provides the Board an opportunity to ask questions and evaluate our legal expertise and approach to solving problems. We have represented hundreds of homeowner associations throughout California over many years and would appreciate the opportunity of working with your association.



Davis Stirling Act - Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act?

A:
The Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act, or Davis-Stirling Act consists of California Civil Code Sections 4000 through 6150. It is the primary body of law that that deals with common interest developments and homeowner associations.


Q: How do I get access to the Davis-Stirling Act?

A:
The entire Davis-Stirling Act is available, at no cost on this website.


Q: Do you update the Davis-Stirling Act on your website?

A.
Yes. It is updated in January of each year after most amendments have become effective.


Q: What other laws affect homeowner association and common interest developments?

A:
The other laws include:

  • Corporations Code

  • Health and Safety Code

  • Government Code

  • Code of Civil Procedure

  • Vehicle Code

  • Labor Code

  • Case Law

  • Internal Revenue Code

  • Federal Trade Commission Regulations on Satellite Dishes

  • Federal Fair Debt Collections Practices Act

  • Homeowner Association Receiverships

  • Expert Witness Services


Q: How long have common interest developments existed in California?

A:
CIDs have existed in California for more than 100 years. Condominiums were first regulated in 1963 by the California Condominiums Act.

In 1985, the laws governing common interest developments were greatly expanded and revised when the Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act was approved by the California Legislature. It became law effective January 1, 1986 and was authored by Gray Davis and Larry Stirling. The law favors home builders and insurance companies, as opposed to home owners, and homeowner associations making it more expensive and time consuming to pursue construction defect claims. The Davis-Stirling Act has been amended every year since 1986.


Q: It is almost impossible to find a new home in California that is not part of a community association. Why is that the case?

A:
Nearly every city in California has budget problems. Consequently, city governments and counties want to pass as many of the traditional costs of government to developers of homes and homeowners. By requiring that new homes be part of a homeowners association, cities can pass the following costs on to developers and homeowners:

  • The cost of developing and maintaining streets, parks and green belts;

  • The cost of installing street lights, lighting maintenance and electricity for lighting the community; and

  • The cost of enforcing maintenance obligations against homeowners who fail to meet minimum community standards.

Each year the percentage of homes in California within common interest developments increases. By the year 2050 it is expected that more than 85% of private homes in California will be part of a common interest development.



Amendments to Davis - Stirling Act

The Davis-Stirling Act was enacted by the California legislature in 1985 and became law effective January 1, 1986. It has been amended every year since 1986. There have been more than 50 amendments since that date. Many of the amendments are quite significant.

It is the duty of the board of directors of every association to be familiar with the Davis-Stirling Act since it determines in great part what the board may do, cannot do, and must do, in their capacity as board members and fiduciaries. The entire text of the Davis-Stirling Act can be found on this website.
 

Call Michael Chulak regarding the Davis-Stirling Act or any other homeowner association related legal or management question. Initial consultations are at no cost.

 

 

HOA Attorney Seminars

Michael T. Chulak & Associates offers free homeowner association legal seminars throughout California.

Topics covered:

New laws
   
Duties of board members
   
Amending your governing documents
   
Collection alternatives
   
Wrongful HOA Collections - Foreclosures
   
CC&R enforcement
   
Construction defects and mold
   
Mediations, arbitrations, litigation
   
Nuisances and restraining orders
   
Meetings and election procedures
   
Legal compliance
   
Davis-Stirling Act
   
Satellite Dish Antenna Rules
   

 

Who should attend:


Board members
   
Homeowners
   
Property managers
   
Real estate agents
Loan agents and brokers
   

 

There is always a question and answer session. Valuable handouts are provided.

Make reservations now; seating is limited. Call (818) 991-9019 or view schedule of seminars and register online. Schedule is updated monthly.

Another Alternative...

Arrange a Private Free

Homeowner Association Legal Seminar

You can arrange a private, free homeowner association seminar for your homeowner association, real estate brokerage office or other similar group anywhere in Los Angeles or Ventura counties by calling (818) 991-9019 or via email. We ask that a minimum of ten people attend.

Why CC&Rs Must Be Updated

The Perfect Analogy

Imagine you are driving down a highway when you see a 70 MPH highway sign. You are driving exactly 70 MPH. A CHP officer pulls you over and states that he stopped you for speeding.

You explain that you were traveling 70 MPH and that the sign posted states Maximum Speed 70 MPH. The CHP officer then explains that the sign is wrong because the law previously reduced the maximum speed to 60 MPH, and consequently, you broke the law. Therefore, you must accept the consequences!

No rational person would accept the situation described above as being reasonable or just. The reason is clear – the driver reasonably assumed he could rely on the posted sign and is being punished because he did what appeared to be reasonable.

Ask Yourself – who relies on your CC&Rs?

The following:

  • Every member of your board of directors

  • Every member of your homeowner association

  • Potential buyers of homes located within your homeowner association

  • Your management company

  • Renters living in your community

Ask Yourself - What is the result if your Association's CC&Rs do not reflect the current law?  Will someone end up like the driver described above?

Remember - the Davis - Stirling Act which is the primary body of homeowner association law (and the basis of your CC&Rs) was adopted in 1985 and has been revised every year since that date.

Ask Yourself - Are your homeowner association's CC&Rs misleading the following:

  • Every member of your board of directors

  • Every member of your homeowner association

  • Potential buyers of homes located within your homeowner association

  • Your management company

  • Renters living in your community

 

For a no cost initial consultation, call us today.

 

Can't Afford Restated or Amended CC&Rs?

Q:  Our homeowner association is relatively small and can’t afford to restate or amend its CC&Rs even though they are obsolete. Do we have any options?

A:  Yes. For a substantially reduced fee, we can review your CC&Rs and provide your HOA with a “CC&R Advisory” that can be distributed to the members of your homeowner association and attached to the association’s CC&Rs.

The CC&R Advisory is not a restatement or amendment and is not recorded. It does not have to be approved by the membership of your association. The CC&R Advisory is a legal opinion setting forth a summary of the major changes to the law enacted since your CC&Rs were approved and recorded. While not as beneficial as a restatement of your CC&Rs, it provides a valuable service at less than 20% of the cost.

 

CC & Rs Maintenance Matrix - $660

If your homeowner association board is having difficulty determining whether association or individual homeowners are responsible for the maintenance of various building components, we can help you by reviewing your CC&Rs and then preparing a CC&R Maintenance Matrix. For $660, your association should be able to eliminate most arguments about maintenance responsibilities and minimize the chances that it will be involved in litigation over maintenance issues. Call us today if your HOA is located anywhere in California.

 

Assignment of Rents

Assessment Collection Tool

Homeowner associations can often seize the rent due from tenants who occupy homes owned by owners who are behind on their assessments or dues, if their CC&Rs permit the action. If your association’s CC&Rs do not permit the seizure of tenant rents, your CC&Rs can be amended to permit this highly effective collection method. Drafting a single Assignment of Rents Amendment, can be done for the cost of $350. Why wait? Why let delinquent homeowners collect rent and not pay the association? Has your association lien service made this recommendation? Call us to get started.

 

HOA Assessment Collections

Michael T. Chulak and Associates represents homeowner associations throughout California in collecting delinquent assessments. No initial fee or deposit is required. While our collection procedures rarely require us to proceed to foreclosure, our firm uses both the judicial foreclosure process and the non-judicial foreclosure process when it becomes necessary. Only a law firm can foreclose judicially. Lien services may not use the courts and are required to foreclose non-judicially. The judicial foreclosure process is often superior because a deficiency judgment is possible to obtain and the threat of a lawsuit tends to force the debtor into an early resolution.

No Initial Fee Assessment Collections

Assessment Lien and Foreclosure Services

The "No Initial Fee Assessment Collection Service" offered by Michael T. Chulak & Associates provides the following benefits to homeowner associations:

  • No up front fees or deposit is required. All fees and costs are billed directly to the delinquent homeowner.

  • Unlike lien services that offer only non-judicial foreclosure services, the judicial foreclosure procedure we often utilize, provides two ways to collect delinquent assessments. First, a judicial foreclosure permits the association to force the sale of the property if payment is not made. Secondly, a money judgment permits the association to seize wages, accounts receivable, bank accounts, stock and other property. Thus, the judicial foreclosure procedure substantially increases the chances of your association collecting delinquent assessments as compared to the non-judicial procedure used by lien services.

  • The collection results obtained by starting the judicial foreclosure process are excellent. The threat of a lawsuit is very intimidating, resulting in most debtors paying their delinquent assessments quickly.

  • Our assessment collection service is attorney supervised. Thus, we make certain that the collection process fully complies with the California Civil Code, the Federal Fair Debit Collections Practices Act and your association’s CC&Rs.

You may ask: Why do lien services use only the non-judicial foreclosure process to collect delinquent assessments? The answer: Only attorneys can practice law by filing lawsuits and using the courts.

If your association is experiencing delinquent assessments, call us today for a no cost consultation.

 

Owner Claims Against HOA

The most common claim made by the owners of condominium units against their homeowner associations is that their unit is experiencing water intrusion because the association has failed to maintain the common area. Generally, this involves leaking roofs, decks, planters, walls, and windows, and often improper slopes and drainage. When a condominium unit owner makes a claim against the association, it is generally because the statue of limitations has run and therefore a claim cannot be made against the developer of the condominium community.

When a condominium unit owner has exhausted his or her patience with the board and files a lawsuit against the association, (not the board), the association will almost always contact its insurance company. Assuming there is coverage, the insurance company will hire a law firm to represent the association and the law firm will hire any appropriate experts needed to investigate the situation and provide advice on how to remedy the problem.

As part of the process, the plaintiff's attorney will hire one or more experts to provide advice and repair cost estimates.

After all experts have completed their investigations, have developed a scope of repairs, and cost estimates, a mediation session will be arranged so that the parties can avoid further litigation and settle the matter short of going to court. In 99% of these matters, the dispute is settled in mediation.

Settlements usually, but not always, consist of the following:

The association agrees to repair the common area in a manner that is acceptable to the expert working for the plaintiff's attorney;
   
The association agrees to pay the plaintiff a dollar amount sufficient to make interior repairs and pay for loss of use; and
   
The association agrees to pay all of the plaintiff's attorney fees and costs.
   
Most importantly, depending upon the insurance coverage, the cost of settling the case will be paid in part or completely by the insurance company.
   

If you are a member of an association board, don't let this happen to your association. A competent management company combined with good legal advice can save your association thousands of dollars.

 

Construction Defect Seminars

Call to arrange a convenient time at your location.

Michael T. Chulak & Associates offers construction defect legal seminars to members of homeowner associations who believe their homes and/or association property has construction defects.

Topics covered:


  • Who is legally responsible for defective construction and mold.

  • What is included in the definition of construction defects.

  • How do we prove that construction is defective.

  • How much will it cost.

  • Legal representation on a contingency basis.

  • What must be disclosed.

  • What are the most common construction defects we find.

  • What happens if the developer has no money or files for bankruptcy.

  • What is the legal process including mediation, arbitration and litigation.

  • What options are available.

There is always a question and answer session designed to answer legal and construction questions.

Legal Review -

HOA Management Company Contracts - $150

Hiring an HOA management company is one of the most important and challenging decisions to be made by the board of directors of a homeowner association. We can assist your board make that decision by providing a legal review of the proposed property management agreement for any association located in California. For $150, we will do the following:

Review the proposed management agreement,
   
Advise you as to any provisions that should be added in our opinion,
   
Advise you as to any provisions that should be deleted in our opinion,
   
Advise you as to any modifications that we believe are appropriate, and
   
Advise you as to whether any of the proposed provisions fall materially outside the industry standard.
   

At the conclusion of our review, we will provide your board of directors with a letter outlining our findings and opinions.

We urge you to avoid signing a management agreement that you will regret at a future date. Spending $150 now may save your homeowner association thousands of dollars later.

Michael T. Chulak & Associates represents homeowner associations and property owners throughout California on a contingency basis in dealing with builders who are responsible for defective construction, including mold infestations. Generally, we can meet or beat the contingent fee percentages proposed by our competitors. We regularly advance all or some of the costs of litigation including expert fees.

Associations and property owners should know their legal rights and not be misled or intimidated when attempting to seek redress for construction defects. The attorneys with Michael T. Chulak & Associates are available to assist you in this regard. We are homeowner / consumer advocates.

Many homeowner associations and homeowners in California new home developments are finding that the common areas of their communities and their individual homes have construction defects which are not attributable to the lack of ordinary maintenance. These construction defects include roof leaks, deck leaks, mold infestations, deteriorating streets, improper drainage, structural failure, inadequate soil preparation, faulty electrical wiring, insufficient insulation and sound proofing, inadequate equipment, cracked slabs, peeling paint and other defects too numerous to list. The construction defects can be caused by poor design, poor construction, poor choice of materials or defective materials.

Nearly all CC&Rs impose upon homeowner associations the duty to maintain and repair the common areas. Legally, this duty includes paying for the correction of defective conditions, including those set forth above. These repairs, which can be quite expensive, can be paid for in several ways:

First, the association can pay for the cost of repairs out of its reserves. However, in most cases the reserves are insufficient.

Second, the amount required to pay the cost of repairs can be obtained by specially assessing the individual homeowners or borrowing funds.

Third, the association may seek redress from the builder who in many cases is legally responsible for the cost of repairs.

 

Developer to Homeowner Transition

Every new community association will transition from developer (subdivider) control to homeowner control. Sometimes the transition is smooth. Sometime it is not.

Professional developers will usually hire an HOA Transition Consultant such as Michael T. Chulak & Associates to assist in the turnover of responsibility to the homeowners. Other developers do not hire a transition consultant leaving the homeowners at a substantial disadvantage.

The HOA transition services offered by Michael T. Chulak & Associates include the following:

 

  • An accounting of all documents that the developer is required by law to turn over to the new board of directors;

  • An accounting of all homeowner association assessments from the date the first escrow closed to the date of the first election of directors;

  • Explaining the required legal process for electing a board of directors and assisting with the election;

  • Reviewing the CC&Rs and Bylaws with the first elected board of directors and answering any legal questions concerning the governing documents;

  • Explaining the correct legal process for holding board meetings, providing required legal notices, holding executive sessions, establishing operating rules, and the Open Meeting Act;

  • Reviewing insurance coverages with the new board of directors;

  • Explaining the budget process, the legal requirement for maintaining reserves, the rights and obligations of board members, the rights and obligations of members of the association; and

 

A question and answer session to answer any questions not otherwise addressed.

Transition Consultants should always represent the association, and not the developer, regardless of which entity pays the consultation fee.

Section 2792.23 of the Regulations of the Real Estate Commissioner of California sets forth the documents developers (subdividers) are required to turn over to homeowner associations that they form.

 

 

Why Management Companies Should Not Provide

Property Maintenance Services Directly

Management companies should not provide property maintenance services directly (including handyman and landscape maintenance) because providing these services directly creates a conflict of interest with their HOA clients that cannot be addressed satisfactorily.

Management companies have the responsibility (a fiduciary duty) to make certain that their clients receive the greatest value possible for every dollar spent on property maintenance services. This means the management company must make certain that their clients do not pay an excessive billing rate, do not pay for an excessive number of hours billed, do not pay for inferior work, do not pay for unnecessary work, and that maintenance is scheduled so as to minimize the number of service calls in order to minimize the client’s overall cost.

Management companies that provide property maintenance services directly are in business to maximize their profit. This legitimate goal is in direct conflict with the property owner’s goal of minimizing maintenance costs, We believe a management company cannot reconcile this conflict of interest if it provides maintenance services directly to its clients. For example, it is possible that the need to meet payroll costs could influence the management company’s judgment as to how much maintenance is “necessary” at client properties.

A management company that hires only independent, third party property maintenance companies has the incentive and ability to fully protect its clients without regard to the profitability of the maintenance operation. A management company that provides maintenance services directly may not have the same incentive or ability.

By law, a management company, as agent for the owner, has the duty to put the client’s interest above its own. Your management company should do exactly that.

For additional information about construction law, construction defects, homeowner association law or any other legal matter call us today for a no cost consultation.

 

HOA - Condominium Association Receiverships

Homeowner Association Receivers

Attorney Michael Chulak is available to provide receivership services for homeowner associations that have become insolvent and/or dysfunctional. In addition to being an experienced HOA attorney, Michael Chulak is an owner of a homeowner association management company, CoastManagement.net, established in 1987.

 

HOA Laws and Rules

Our links above provide direct access to the Davis-Stirling Act which is the primary body of law dealing with common interest developments including condominiums, planned developments, stock cooperatives, and community apartment projects.  Our link to HOA Questions and Answers provides answers to the most common questions encountered by members of homeowner associations with an emphasis on HOA Law, HOA Rules, CC&Rs, Bylaws and Construction Defects.

 

HOA Law Articles

 

We add articles to this section of our website on a regular basis:



Real Estate Law Articles





Business Law Articles


 

Homeowner Association Problems

Call us today for a no cost consultation regarding any homeowner association problem or send your question to us via email from our HOA Questions and Answers link above. This is your opportunity to obtain assistance from a California HOA attorney.

 





HOA Attorney Seminars


Construction Defect Seminars


Reserve Studies - Southern California


HOA Transition Services From Developer


Glossary of HOA Insurance Terms

 



ALS Matching Funds

Collecting Matching Funds for ALS

Research and Patient Services

Michael T. Chulak & Associates will match your tax deductible donations to ALS Association. ALS is also referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease.
ALS Matching Funds Information.



Areas Served:

Los Angeles County:

Acton, Agoura, Agoura Hills, Agua Dulce, Alhambra, Altadena, Arcadia, Arleta, Artesia, Avalon, Azusa, Baldwin Hills, Baldwin Park, Bassett, Bell, Bell Canyon, Bell Gardens, Bellflower, Beverly Hills, Bouquet Canyon, Box Canyon, Burbank, Calabasas, Calabasas Hills, Canoga Park, Canyon Country, Carson, Castaic, Century City, Cerritos, Chatsworth, Claremont, Commerce, Compton, Covina, Cudahy, Crystalaire, Culver City, Del Sur, Diamond Bar, Downey, Duarte, East Los Angeles, East Rancho Dominguez, El Monte, El Segundo, Encino, Firestone Park, Flintridge, Gardena, Glassell, Glassell Park, Glendale, Glendora, Granada Hills, Hacienda Heights, Hawaiian Gardens, Hansen Dam, Hawthorne, Hermosa Beach, Hidden Hills, Highland Park, Hollywood, Huntington Park, Industry, Inglewood, Irwindale, La Canada Flintridge, La Crescenta- Montrose, La Habra Heights, La Mirada, La Puente, La Verne, La Canada, Lake Hughes, Lake Los Angeles, Lake View Terrace, Lakewood, Lancaster, Lawndale, Leimert Park, Lennox, Leona Valley, Lincoln Heights, Littlerock, Lomita, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Lynwood, Malibu, Manhattan Beach, Marina Del Rey, Maywood, Mission Hills, Monrovia, Monte Nido, Montebello, Monterey Park, Mount Baldy, Mount Wilson, Newhall, North El Monte, North Hills, North Hollywood, Northridge, Norwalk, Pacoima, Palisades, Palmdale, Paramount, Pearblossom, Pico Rivera, Pomona, Quartz Hill, Rancho Dominguez, Rancho Palos Verdes, Rancho Park, Redondo Beach, Reseda, Ritter Ranch, Rolling Hills, Rolling Hills Estates, Rosemead, San Dimas, San Fernando, San Gabriel, San Marino, San Pedro, Santa Clarita, Santa Fe Springs, Santa Monica, Saratoga Hills, Saugus, Sherman Oaks, Sierra Madre, Signal Hill, South El Monte, South Gate, South Pasadena, Stevenson Ranch, Studio City, Sun Valley, Sun Village, Tarzana, Temple City, Toluca Lake, Topanga, Torrance, Tujunga, Universal City, Val Verde, Valencia, Valley Village, Van Nuys, Venice, Vernon, Walnut, Walnut Park, West Covina, West Hills, West Hollywood, West Los Angeles, West Toluca Lake, Westchester, Whittier, Wilmington, Windsor Hills, Winnetka, Woodland Hills.

Ventura County:

Camarillo, Channel Islands, Faria Beach, Fillmore, Moorpark, Newbury Park, Oak Park, Oak View, Ojai, Oxnard, Port Hueneme, Santa Paula, Saticoy, Somis, Simi Valley, Thousand Oaks, Ventura (San Buenaventura), Westlake Village.

Orange County:

Aliso Viejo, Anaheim, Balboa Island, Brea, Buena Park, Corona Island, Costa Mesa, Cypress, Dana Point, Foothill Ranch, Fountain Valley, Fullerton, Garden Grove, Huntington Beach, Irvine, La Habra, La Palma, Ladera Ranch, Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Laguna Niguel, Laguna Woods, Lake Forrest, Los Alamitos, Mission Viejo, Newport Beach, Newport Coast, Orange, Placentia, Rossmoor, San Clemente, San Juan Capistrano, Santa Ana, Santa Ana Heights, Seal Beach, Stanton, Tustin, Tustin Foothills, Villa Park, Westminster, Yorba Linda.

San Bernardino County:

Adelanto, Apple Valley, Barstow, Big Bear, Big Bear City, Chino, Chino Hills, Colton, Crestline, Fontana, Grand Terrace, Hesperia, Highland, Joshua Tree, Lake Arrowhead, Landers, Loma Linda, Montclair, Morongo Valley, Needles, Ontario, Rancho Cucamonga, Redlands, Rialto, Running Springs, San Bernardino, Twentynine Palms, Upland, Victorville, Yucaipa, Yucca Valley.

Riverside County:

Anza, Banning, Beaumont, Bermuda Dunes, Blythe, Cabazon, Calimesa, Canyon Lake, Cathedral City, Cherry Valley, Coachella, Corona, Desert Hot Springs, East Blythe, East Hemet, El Cerrito, Glen Avon, Hemet, Highgrove, Home Gardens, Homeland, Idyllwild-Pine Cove, Indian Wells, Indio, La Quinta, Lake Elsinore, Lakeland Village, Lakeview, Mecca, Mira Loma, Moreno Valley, Murrieta, Murrieta Hot Springs, Norco, Nuevo, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Pedley, Perris, Quail Valley, Rancho Mirage, Riverside, Rubidoux, San Jacinto, Sun City, Sunnyslope, Temecula, Thousand Palms, Valle Vista, Wildomar, Winchester, Woodcrest.

Santa Barbara County:

Ballard, Buellton, Carpinteria, Gaviota, Goleta, Guadalupe, Hollister Ranch, Hope Ranch, Isla Vista, Lompoc, Los Alamos, Los Olivos, Mission Canyon, Mission Hills, Montecito, Orcutt, Santa Barbara, Santa Maria, Santa Ynez, Solvang, Summerland, Toro Canyon.

San Diego County:

Carlsbad, Chula Vista, Coronado, Del Mar, El Cajon, Encinitas, (Cardiff-by-Sea, Leucadia, Olivenhain), Escondido, Fairbanks, Ranch, Fallbrook, Imperial Beach, Julian, La Mesa, Lake San, lakeside, Lemon Grove, National City, Oceanside (San Luis Rey), Poway, Romona, Rancho San Diego, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego, San Marcos, Santee, Solana Beach, Hidden Meadows, San Diego County Estates, Spring Valley, Vista.

San Luis Obispo County:

Arroyo Grande, Atascadero, Avila Beach, Baywood-Los Osos, Cambria, Cayucos, Grover Beach, Lake Nacimiento, Los Osos, Morro Bay, Nipomo, Oceano, Paso Robles, Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo, San Miguel, San Simeon, Santa Margarita, Templeton.

Kern County:

Arvin, Bakersfield, Bear Valley Springs, Boron, California City, Delano, Frazier Park, Lake Isabella, Lebec, Maricopa, McFarland, Mojave, Pine Mountain Club, Ridgecrest, Rosedale, Shafter, Taft, Tehachapi, Wasco, Wofford Heights.



Alameda County, Alpine County, Amador County, Butte County, Calaveras County, Colusa County, Contra Costa County, Del Norte County, El Dorado County, Fresno County, Glenn County, Humboldt County, Imperial County, Inyo County, Kern County, Kings County, Lake County, Lassen County, Los Angeles County, Madera County, Marin County, Mariposa County, Mendocino County, Merced County, Modoc County, Mono County, Monterey County, Napa County, Nevada County, Orange County, Placer County, Plumas County, Riverside County, Sacramento County, San Benito County, San Bernardino County, San Diego County, San Francisco County, San Joaquin County, San Luis Obispo County, San Mateo County, Santa Barbara County, Santa Clara County, Santa Cruz County, Shasta County, Sierra County, Siskiyou County, Solano County, Sonoma County, Stanislaus County, Sutter County, Tehama County, Trinity County, Tulare County, Tuolumne County, Ventura County, Yolo County, Yuba County

 

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